There are four main reasons for inequality in Indonesia, according to National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) head Bambang S. Brodjonegoro. The first of these, according to Bambang, is how difficult it is for the public to access basic services, such as education, healthcare, clean water and sanitation.
“As a result, if there are people who don’t have access to education, sanitation and a home, then it can be guaranteed that they will be left far behind,” Bambang said during the Forum Merdeka Barat 9 media event held recently at the Communications and Information Ministry.
The second factor, Bambang said, was inequality in employment quality, as less talented individuals were trapped in jobs with low productivity and wages. “That is why it’s difficult for them to go up in class status,” he said.
The third factor is inequality of assets and income. This leads to wealth being concentrated in a small group of the population, which is something that happens in many nations.
“The highest inequality is in China, at 0.5. But the difference is that the [Gini] coefficient in developed countries is not considered an issue, as the lowest classes in those countries still have the ability to fulfill their basic needs,” Bambang said.
The fourth and final factor is the lack of a social safety net during times of crisis. A person can suddenly get sick and suffer from uncertainty in employment or experience higher prices during disasters.
“Let’s not forget that Indonesia is very vulnerable to natural disasters,” Bambang said as quoted by tempo.co.